Viticulture and viniculture play an important role in the life of the people of the Turfan region even today. The first part of the present article introduces the appearance of the grape and the viniculture in the region. The second part describes the viniculture of the Uyghurs, who settled in the region in the middle of the 9th century. The third part discusses the role of the Turfan wine in the Mongol Empire and tries to evaluate the quality of it. In order to gain a better understanding, contemporary narrative sources are examined comparatively with the Old Uyghur (9–14th centuries) and Middle Mongolian (13–14th centuries) documentary (administrative, juridical, economic etc.) sources, unearthed in the Turfan region (today Xinjiang, PRC). The article argues that the Uyghurs found an already flourishing viticulture and viniculture in the region in the middle of the 9th century. Under the West Uyghur Kingdom (9th–12th centuries), viticulture and winemaking played an important role not only in the life of the laic population, but also in the economy of the Manichean and Buddhist monasteries. In the Mongol Period (13 th–14th centuries) the Turfan area was one of the most important wine producing regions of the eastern part of the Mongol Empire.