A Bajor Geográfus és a korai magyar történelem

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Richárd Szántó


The ’Description of Cities and Lands North of the Danube’ (Descriptio civitatum et regionem ad septemtrionalem plagam Danubii) was written by an anonymous author between 843 and 862 in the Eastern Frank Empire. The author is known as „Bavarian Geographer” in contemporary historiography. The Descriptio was copied in the 10th century. This only remaining copy of the Descriptio is preserved in the Bavarian State Library (Bayerische Staatbibliothek, München). The Descriptio lists the names of 58 tribes and old peoples north of the Danube and the Black Sea to the Volga. The name ’Vngare’ is mentioned among the names of the tribes. This paper locates the territories of the Vngare and their neighbouring tribes and peoples west of the Dniepr and north of the Danube (see: II. Map). According to the Descriptio, the Vngare can be located west of the tribes (41.) Ruzzi, (42.) Forsderen Liudi, (43.) Fresisti, and (45.) Lucolane. The Polish tribes (33. Lendizi and 47. Vuislane) lived north and northwest of the territory of the Vngare. The Moravians (11. Marharii) lived west of the territory of the Vngare but there was a significant distance between them. The Bulgars (12. Vulgarii) can be located southwest of the Vngare and there was a considerable distance between them as well. North and south of the Vngare, the territories of Slavonic and nomadic tribes can be identified in the western part of the steppe. In addition to the Description, the people of Vngare/Ugor/Wangar appeared in other sources as well. The biography of Constantine, who was the first preceptor of the Slavonic people, mentioned a fighting troop of Ugors in the Crimea, when he travelled to the Khazar Khagan in 860/861 as ambassador of the Byzantine Emperor. In 860 the border of the Wangars (marcha Wangariorum) appeared in the record of Louis the German, king of the Eastern Frank Empire. The Ugor/Ungar/Wangar became the name of the Hungarians at the end of the 9th and at the beginning of the 10th century. The Annals of Saint Bertin (Annales Bertiniani) appeared some wild (feritas) peoples who prevented the return of the Rus ambassadors from Constantinople to their homeland in 839. The author of Description named the (26.) Attorozi a very wild people (populus ferocissimus). The wild people mentioned in the Annales of Saint Bertin and the very wild Attorozi in the Descriptio may be the same people.

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